How, where, and what food is grown in the US?

Latest update on February 24, 2023

What is the current state of agriculture in the US?

2022 was a record-breaking year for the American agriculture industry. The agricultural sector sold $552.6 billion in commodities including animal products and crops.

The federal government employs various methods to gather essential information about agriculture, including crop types and locations, financial details of American farm enterprises, and the size of the agricultural workforce. This page offers a glimpse into these measurements, aiming to provide answers to fundamental food-related questions. By harnessing the power of data, we gain a deeper understanding of the challenges and influences impacting the way our country is nourished.

Direct farm program payments

In 2022, the federal government provided farms with $15.6 billion in subsidies, or direct farm program payments.

The Department of Agriculture is the primary federal agency that provides direct payments to farmers. The payments are meant to maintain farm income.

Farms by type

In 2017, there were 2,042,220 farms in the US, down 8% from 1997.

Since 1997, the number of midsize farms has declined.

As defined by the Department of Agriculture (USDA), a farm is "any place from which $1,000 or more of agricultural products were produced and sold, or normally would have been sold, during the year." Since the USDA's 1997 Census of Agriculture, the number of farms smaller than 50 acres or larger than 2,000 acres has increased, while farms with sizes between 50 and 2,000 acres decreased.

While the number of family farms (owned by the farm’s operator and relatives) declined this century, these operations continue to account for most farms.

The federal department conducts its Census of Agriculture every five years, surveying every farm in the US and recording characteristics, including land use, size, ownership, and finances. Results from the 2022 Census of Agriculture are expected to be published in 2024.

Farm employment by state

In 2021, there were 270,931 farmworkers in Texas, more than any other state.

Farms account for a higher percentage of employment in Great Plains states than other parts of the US.

The Bureau of Economic Analysis defines farm employment as the number of workers directly producing agricultural commodities, either livestock or crops. The number of workers includes farm owners and hired labor. The mechanization of agriculture is a factor in the decline in agriculture jobs, according to the Department of Agriculture.

Agricultural land area

In 2017, 223 million acres of land in the US were used for agricultural purposes.

More than 9% of land in the US is for agricultural purposes, according to data from the Census of Agriculture.

Farm product sales

In 2022, farms sold $552.6 billion in commodities, including animal products and crops.

The most prominent agricultural products in the US include meat from cattle and calves and crops primarily to feed animals, most notably corn.

Each August, the Department of Agriculture's Economic Research Service releases estimates on the previous year's farm cash receipts. Cash receipts for agricultural products are the gross income from the sales of crops and animal products during a calendar year.

Despite a drop in farm employment and operations, the value of agricultural products has grown in recent decades. The top products by cash receipts produced on US farms are cattle and calves, corn, soybeans, dairy products, and broiler chickens.

Farm product sales by state

In 2022, farms in California sold $57.7 billion worth of agricultural products, more than any other state.

Data from the Department of Agriculture shows how agriculture has shifted geographically over the decades. Today, states in the Midwest have higher agricultural cash receipts than those in other parts of the country, though California’s agricultural economy is the largest.

Inflation rate of food

In November 2023, food prices were 2.9% higher compared to the same month last year.

Prices for beef and veal were 8.7% higher compared to the same month the previous year. Prices for eggs were down 22.3% during that same period.

The Consumer Price Index for Urban Consumers (CPI-U), which the Bureau of Labor Statistics produces, tracks price changes of a “representative basket of goods and services,” including food. Food included in this basket is as varied as meats, eggs, dairy, bread, sugar and sweets, and more. Food prices are volatile and subject to price swings related to supply and distribution issues. An example is the rise of egg prices in 2022 and 2023 when an avian flu outbreak affected the supply.

These charts show the annual percent change in CPI-U for food and selected foods.

Government spending

In fiscal year 2020, the federal government spent $55.6 billion on agriculture.

That’s $168 per person in the US.

USAFacts categorizes government budget data to allocate spending appropriately, and to arrive at the estimate presented here. The federal government spends on supporting farms and agricultural businesses. The government also spends on agricultural research and services. Agriculture spending and policy are often associated with the farm bill, which is passed about every five years.

Government revenue and expenditures are based on data from the Office of Management and Budget, the Census Bureau, and the Bureau of Economic Analysis. Each is published annually, although due to collection times.

Agencies and elected officials

Level of government
Key actors

Agriculture industry oversight


Department of Agriculture

Provide subsidies and insurance to farmers


Agriculture industry oversight

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Agriculture and economy data