Key metrics by segment > Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations > PART II > Government 10-K

Government 10-K PART II Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Key metrics by segment

Published on Mon, May 17, 2021 9:00AM PDT | Updated Mon, May 17, 2021 1:17PM PDT

In this section, we analyze by segment certain key metrics that measure progress towards our constitutional objectives of justice and domestic tranquility, common defense, general welfare, and security of the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity. We chose metrics for which government data was available and that seemed representative of the status of these objectives. There are more metrics on our website at https://usafacts.org/, which you can access by selecting the “More detail” links next to the tables below.

As discussed in Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors, in a free society, human behavior cannot be fully regulated or controlled. Government provides services, promulgates regulations, and enacts legislation intended to make progress towards our constitutional objectives; however, people are responsible for making their own choices. In addition, there are many other forces influencing these key metrics, including the natural world, governments and citizens of other countries, and businesses and philanthropic organizations worldwide. Therefore, one should not assume that the revenue and expenditures discussed above and the legislation discussed throughout this document caused the key metrics discussed in this section.

Justice and Domestic Tranquility (JDT)

The JDT segment works to establish justice and ensure domestic tranquility among the US population. Its reporting units are crime and disaster, safeguarding consumers and employees, and child safety and miscellaneous social services. Overall, the long-term trend for the past decade shows we:

  • made meaningful progress on: numbers of overall crimes reported and related arrests; youth in jails and prisons, as well as overall numbers of those in prison for property and drug crimes; highway vehicle fires; median losses per fraud complaint; workplace violations, non-fatal workplace injuries, and back wages recovered; children adopted from foster care and the median time they spent in foster care; children ages four and older that are victims of maltreatment; and the number of children in poverty; and
  • regressed notably in: people in prison for public order and other offenses; civilian deaths from fires that are vehicle and other non-structure fires; the numbers and estimated costs of billion-dollar natural disasters; acres and cost per acre burned in wildland fires; all types of consumer complaints and consumer product safety injuries; highway crashes; victimization of children ages birth to one year old; child fatalities as a result of maltreatment of children, primarily neglect and abuse and of children ages birth to one year old and ages eight to 11; children receiving free and reduced price lunch, and homeless children enrolled in school.

Shorter-term trends may differ.

Crime and disaster

The crime and disaster reporting unit seeks to reduce crime, administer justice, and mitigate and prevent disasters.

Crime

(In thousands, except percentages, rates, or otherwise noted)

 

 

2018

 

 

 

2017

 

 

 

2013

 

 

 

2008

 

 

 

Change

2018 vs.

2017

 

 

 

Change

2018 vs.

2013

 

 

 

Change

2018 vs.

2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Crimes reported 1 (fiscal year):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Property crimes 2

 

 

7,219

 

 

 

7,683

 

 

 

8,652

 

 

 

9,774

 

 

 

(6)%

 

 

 

(17)%

 

 

 

(26)%

Property crimes per 100,000 people

 

 

2,210

 

 

 

2,363

 

 

 

2,734

 

 

 

3,215

 

 

 

(6)%

 

 

 

(19)%

 

 

 

(31)%

Violent crimes 3

 

 

1,210

 

 

 

1,248

 

 

 

1,168

 

 

 

1,394

 

 

 

(3)%

 

 

 

4%

 

 

 

(13)%

Violent crimes per 100,000 people

 

 

370

 

 

 

384

 

 

 

369

 

 

 

459

 

 

 

(4)%

 

 

 

—%

 

 

 

(19)%

Murder/non-negligent manslaughter (MNM)

 

 

16

 

 

 

17

 

 

 

14

 

 

 

16

 

 

 

(6)%

 

 

 

14%

 

 

 

%

MNMs per 100,000 people

 

 

5

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

—%

 

 

 

—%

 

 

 

—%

Arrests by crime:

 

 

10,311

 

 

 

10,555

 

 

 

11,303

 

 

 

14,007

 

 

 

(2)%

 

 

 

(9)%

 

 

 

(26)%

Drug abuse violations

 

 

1,654

 

 

 

1,633

 

 

 

1,501

 

 

 

1,703

 

 

 

1%

 

 

 

10%

 

 

 

(3)%

Drug abuse violations arrests per 100,000 people

 

 

506

 

 

 

502

 

 

 

475

 

 

 

560

 

 

 

1%

 

 

 

7%

 

 

 

(10)%

Sale/manufacturing

 

 

na

 

 

 

238

 

 

 

269

 

 

 

305

 

 

 

na

 

 

 

na

 

 

 

na

Possession

 

 

na

 

 

 

1,395

 

 

 

1,232

 

 

 

1,398

 

 

 

na

 

 

 

na

 

 

 

na

Property crimes 2

 

 

1,167

 

 

 

1,250

 

 

 

1,559

 

 

 

1,687

 

 

 

(7)%

 

 

 

(25)%

 

 

 

(31)%

Property crimes arrests rate (of property crimes reported)

 

 

16%

 

 

 

16%

 

 

 

18%

 

 

 

17%

 

 

 

—ppt

 

 

 

(2)ppt

 

 

 

(1)ppt

Driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol or narcotics

 

 

1,001

 

 

 

991

 

 

 

1,167

 

 

 

1,483

 

 

 

1%

 

 

 

(14)%

 

 

 

(33)%

DUI arrests per 1,000 miles driven

 

 

309

 

 

 

308

 

 

 

391

 

 

 

499

 

 

 

—%

 

 

 

(21)%

 

 

 

(38)%

Violent crimes 3

 

 

521

 

 

 

519

 

 

 

480

 

 

 

595

 

 

 

%

 

 

 

9%

 

 

 

(12)%

Violent crimes arrests rate (of violent crimes reported)

 

 

43%

 

 

 

42%

 

 

 

41%

 

 

 

43%

 

 

 

1ppt

 

 

 

2ppt

 

 

 

—ppt

Other

 

 

5,968

 

 

 

6,162

 

 

 

6,596

 

 

 

8,539

 

 

 

(3)%

 

 

 

(10)%

 

 

 

(30)%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

We limited the key metrics data in this table to the years presented to be consistent with the previous sections of this MD&A. The most recent data in those sections is 2018, as that is the latest date for which comprehensive Government-wide financial data is available. Additional years of key metrics data may be found on our website. Click “More detail” to access it.

na An “na” reference in the table means the data is not available.

1 Crimes reported by local law enforcement to the Federal Bureau of Investigation

2 Property crimes are offenses of burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson.

3 Violent crimes are offenses of murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault.

Crimes reported

Property crimes and violent crimes reported had generally been declining at accelerating rates each year of the decade covered by this report, and at even higher rates if you adjust for population growth. Declines were seen across most crime sub-categories and major regions (Northeast, Midwest, South, West).

In 2016, this trend temporarily reversed for violent crimes, as reported crimes increased across all sub-categories and in every major region, with the exception of the Northeast. Rates dropped again for most sub-categories and regions in 2017 and 2018 but remained elevated when compared to recent history:

  • By major region - the change in violent crimes from 2017 to 2018 ranged from a decrease of 5% in the Midwest (to a rate of 361 violent crimes reported per 100,000 people) to remaining flat in the West (to a rate of 423 violent crimes reported per 100,000 people).
  • By state/territory - the change in violent crimes from 2017 to 2018 ranged from a decrease of 20% in West Virginia (to a rate of 290 violent crimes reported per 100,000 people) to an increase of 10% in New Mexico (to a rate of 857 violent crimes reported per 100,000 people).
  • By type - Aggravated assaults accounted for 67% of violent crimes reported to law enforcement in 2018, with the number of aggravated assaults reported up 2% from 2017, while robbery offenses accounted for 23% (down 3%), rape accounted for 8% (same as 2017), and murder accounted for 1% (same as 2017).

Arrests

Arrests for property crimes and violent crimes followed similar trends as crimes reported, with property crime arrests decreasing in all periods and violent crime arrests decreasing over the past decade but increasing in 2017 and 2018. Arrests for drug abuse violations also decreased over the past decade but increased in 2017 and 2018. When comparing 2008 to 2017 (the latest available data), we see a shift in the distribution of drug abuse violation arrests towards those for possession (vs. sale/manufacturing) of heroin or cocaine and their derivatives and synthetic or manufactured drugs. Arrests for DUIs decreased for all periods before increasing slightly in 2018.

Underlying the overall arrests trends, there are demographical points to note:

  • Youth (under age 18) are more often arrested for property crimes (18% of their arrests in 2018) than violent crimes (7% of their arrests in 2018) and are comprising a disproportionately smaller percentage of all arrests over time (an 8-percentage point decline overall between 2008 and 2018 – compared to a 2-percentage point decline in the percentage of the total population they represent); and
  • Black people have been arrested at a rate (27% of total arrests in 2018) that is significantly higher than the rate they comprise of the US population (13% in 2018) throughout the periods discussed in this report. In 2018, Black people accounted for more than 50% of the population arrested for murder and nonnegligent manslaughter and robbery offenses. 

Incarceration

December 31, except as otherwise noted

(In thousands, except percentages or otherwise noted)

 

2018

 

2017

 

2013

 

2008

 

Change

2018 vs.

2017

 

Change

2018 vs.

2013

 

Change

2018 vs.

2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Incarcerated population: 1

 

 

2,123

 

 

 

2,154

 

 

 

2,223

 

 

 

2,310

 

  

 

(1)%

 

  

 

(4)%

 

  

 

(8)%

Persons in jail (last weekday in June) 2

 

 

738

 

 

 

745

 

 

 

731

 

 

 

786

 

 

 

(1)%

 

 

 

1%

 

 

 

(6)%

Persons in federal and state prison 3

 

 

1,465

 

 

 

1,489

 

 

 

1,577

 

 

 

1,608

 

 

 

(2)%

 

 

 

(7)%

 

 

 

(9)%

Youth in jail (actuals, last weekday in June)

 

 

3,400

 

 

 

3,600

 

 

 

4,600

 

 

 

7,700

 

 

 

(6)%

 

 

 

(26)%

 

 

 

(56)%

Youth in state prisons (actuals)

 

 

699

 

 

 

893

 

 

 

1,188

 

 

 

2,717

 

 

 

(22)%

 

 

 

(41)%

 

 

 

(74)%

Sentenced prisoners by crime committed:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Violent crimes

 

 

706

 

 

 

723

 

 

 

718

 

 

 

730

 

 

 

(2)%

 

 

 

(2)%

 

 

 

(3)%

Property crimes

 

 

209

 

 

 

224

 

 

 

267

 

 

 

261

 

 

 

(7)%

 

 

 

(22)%

 

 

 

(20)%

Drug crimes

 

 

253

 

 

 

263

 

 

 

306

 

 

 

346

 

 

 

(4)%

 

 

 

(17)%

 

 

 

(27)%

Public order and other 4

 

 

217

 

 

 

222

 

 

 

216

 

 

 

182

 

 

 

(2)%

 

 

 

—%

 

 

 

19%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

We limited the key metrics data in this table to the years presented to be consistent with the previous sections of this MD&A. The most recent data in those sections is 2018, as that is the latest date for which comprehensive Government-wide financial data is available. Additional years of key metrics data may be found on our website. Click “More detail” to access it.

1 Prisoners held in local jails were excluded from the total to prevent double counting.

2 Jails are correctional facilities that confine persons before or after adjudication and are usually operated by local law enforcement authorities. Jail sentences are usually for 1 year or less.

3 State and federal prisoner populations differ from the jail inmate population in terms of conviction status, offense distribution, and average length of stay. Prison facilities also differ from local jail facilities in average size, treatment and programming resources, and crowding, among other characteristics.

4 Public order includes weapons, drunk driving, and court offenses; commercialized vice, morals, and decency offenses; and liquor law violations and other public-order offenses.

Our incarcerated populations decreased over the past decade. However, there are racial and other dynamics of note:

  • Black (non-Hispanic) people are disproportionately jailed and imprisoned, comprising 33% of each those jailed and imprisoned in 2018 as compared to 13% of the US population. However, the percentages of the jailed and imprisoned populations they comprise are decreasing (declines of 6 and 5 percentage points between 2008 and 2018 of those jailed and imprisoned, respectively) despite remaining 13% of the US population during this period.
  • The opposite is true for white (non-Hispanic) people, who represent a disproportionately small percentage of those incarcerated - 50% of those jailed and 30% of those imprisoned in 2018, while comprising 60% of the US population. The percentage of those jailed who are white increased 7 percentage points between 2008 and 2018, while the percentage of those imprisoned who are white decreased 2 percentage points. Meanwhile, white people decreased as a percentage of the US population (a 2-percentage point decrease between 2008 and 2018).
  • Hispanic people comprised 15% of those jailed and 23% of those imprisoned in 2018 as compared to 18% of the US population. The percentage of those jailed who are Hispanic decreased 2 percentage points between 2008 and 2018, while the percentage of those imprisoned who are Hispanic increased 2 percentage points.
  • The offenses for which people are imprisoned has changed, with violent crime, property crime, and drug offenses decreasing and public order offenses increasing.
  • Numbers of incarcerated youth are decreasing.

Fire (non-natural disaster)

Calendar year

2018

 

2017

 

2013

 

2008

 

Change

2018 vs.

2017

 

Change

2018 vs.

2013

 

Change

2018 vs.

2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fire incidents (in thousands, except rates):

 

 

1,319

 

 

 

1,319

 

 

 

1,240

 

 

 

1,452

 

  

 

%

 

  

 

6%

 

  

 

(9)%

Home structure fires 1

 

 

363

 

 

 

357

 

 

 

370

 

 

 

387

 

 

 

2%

 

 

 

(2)%

 

 

 

(6)%

Home structure fires per 100,000 housing units

 

 

262

 

 

 

260

 

 

 

277

 

 

 

297

 

 

 

1%

 

 

 

(5)%

 

 

 

(12)%

Other structure fires 2

 

 

136

 

 

 

142

 

 

 

118

 

 

 

129

 

 

 

(4)%

 

 

 

15%

 

 

 

6%

Highway vehicle fires 3

 

 

182

 

 

 

168

 

 

 

164

 

 

 

207

 

 

 

8%

 

 

 

11%

 

 

 

(12)%

Highway vehicle fires per 1 billion miles driven

 

 

56

 

 

 

52

 

 

 

55

 

 

 

70

 

 

 

8%

 

 

 

2%

 

 

 

(20)%

Other fires 4

 

 

638

 

 

 

653

 

 

 

589

 

 

 

730

 

 

 

(2)%

 

 

8%

 

 

 

(13)%

Civilian deaths from fire incidents:

 

 

3,655

 

 

 

3,400

 

 

 

3,240

 

 

 

3,320

 

 

 

8%

 

 

 

13%

 

 

 

10%

Home structure fire civilian deaths 1

 

 

2,720

 

 

 

2,630

 

 

 

2,755

 

 

 

2,555

 

 

 

3%

 

 

 

(1)%

 

 

 

6%

Rate of deaths per home structure fire

 

 

0.7%

 

 

 

0.7%

 

 

 

0.7%

 

 

 

0.7%

 

 

 

—ppt

 

 

 

—ppt

 

 

 

—ppt

Other structure fire civilian deaths 2

 

 

190

 

 

 

185

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

195

 

 

 

3%

 

 

 

90%

 

 

 

(3)%

Rate of deaths per other structure fire

 

 

0.1%

 

 

 

0.1%

 

 

 

0.1%

 

 

 

0.2%

 

 

 

—ppt

 

 

 

—ppt

 

 

 

(0.1)ppt

Highway vehicle fire civilian deaths 3

 

 

490

 

 

 

400

 

 

 

300

 

 

 

350

 

 

 

23%

 

 

 

63%

 

 

 

40%

Rate of deaths per highway vehicle fire

 

 

0.3%

 

 

 

0.2%

 

 

 

0.2%

 

 

 

0.2%

 

 

 

0.1ppt

 

 

 

0.1ppt

 

 

 

0.1ppt

Other fire civilian deaths 4

 

 

255

 

 

 

185

 

 

 

85

 

 

 

220

 

 

 

38%

 

 

 

200%

 

 

 

16%

Rate of deaths per other fire

 

 

0.0%

 

 

 

0.0%

 

 

 

0.0%

 

 

 

0.0%

 

 

 

—ppt

 

 

 

—ppt

 

 

 

—ppt

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

We limited the key metrics data in this table to the years presented to be consistent with the previous sections of this MD&A. The most recent data in those sections is 2018, as that is the latest date for which comprehensive Government-wide financial data is available. Additional years of key metrics data may be found on our website. Click “More detail” to access it.

1 Homes are dwellings, duplexes, manufactured homes (also called mobile homes), apartments, rowhouses, and townhouses.

2 Includes other residential properties, such as hotels and motels, dormitories, barracks, rooming and boarding homes, and the like.

3 Highway vehicles include any vehicle designed to operate normally on highways, such as automobiles, motorcycles, buses, trucks, and trailers, but not manufactured homes on foundations.

4 Other fires include fires in non-highway vehicles (i.e., trains, boats, ships, aircraft, farm, and construction vehicles), outside property fires, outside wilderness fires, and fires in rubbish, among others.

Fire incidents

The number of fire incidents have fluctuated but ultimately declined over the past decade, both on an absolute basis and per housing unit and mile driven. The overall decrease was led by a 92 thousand or 13% decrease in “other” fires. In 2018, the leading cause of fires was cooking for both residential and non-residential buildings, comprising 51% and 31% of those fires, respectively.

Civilian deaths from fire incidents

Civilian deaths from fire incidents have also fluctuated but increased overall in the past decade, led by a 165 or 6% increase in deaths from home structure fire incidents and a 140 or 40% increase in deaths from highway vehicle fire incidents. As a percentage of fire incidents, deaths for all types of fire incidents shown have remained less than 1% throughout the past decade.

Disasters

Calendar year

(Dollars in billions, others actuals or as noted

2018

 

2017

 

2013

 

2008

 

Change

2018 vs.

2017

 

Change

2018 vs.

2013

 

Change

2018 vs.

2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Billion-dollar disaster incidents 1

 

 

14

 

 

 

16

 

 

 

9

 

 

 

12

 

 

 

(13)%

 

 

 

56%

 

 

 

17%

Billion-dollar disaster cost estimate 1

 

$

91

 

 

$

306

 

 

$

23

 

 

$

64

 

 

 

(70)%

 

 

 

296%

 

 

 

42%

Cost per billion-dollar disaster 1

 

$

6

 

 

$

19

 

 

$

3

 

 

$

5

 

 

 

(68)%

 

 

 

100%

 

 

 

20%

Disaster deaths

 

 

247

 

 

 

3,278

 

 

 

113

 

 

 

303

 

 

 

(92)%

 

 

 

119%

 

 

 

(18)%

Billion-dollar disaster incidents

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Severe storm

 

 

8

 

 

 

8

 

 

 

6

 

 

 

6

 

 

%

 

 

 

33%

 

 

 

33%

Severe storm cost

 

$

12

 

 

$

17

 

 

$

10

 

 

$

9

 

 

 

(29)%

 

 

 

20%

 

 

 

33%

Cost per severe storm

 

$

2

 

 

$

2

 

 

$

2

 

 

$

2

 

 

 

—%

 

 

 

—%

 

 

 

—%

Tropical cyclone

 

 

2

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

(33)%

 

 

 

nm

 

 

(33)%

Tropical cyclone cost

 

$

49

 

 

$

265

 

 

$

 

 

$

37

 

 

 

(82)%

 

 

 

nm

 

 

32%

Cost per tropical cyclone

 

$

25

 

 

$

88

 

 

$

 

 

$

12

 

 

 

(72)%

 

 

 

nm

 

 

108%

Flood

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

(100)%

 

 

 

(100)%

 

 

 

(100)%

Flood cost

 

$

 

 

$

3

 

 

$

3

 

 

$

10

 

 

 

(100)%

 

 

 

(100)%

 

 

 

(100)%

Cost per flood

 

$

 

 

$

2

 

 

$

2

 

 

$

10

 

 

 

(100)%

 

 

 

(100)%

 

 

 

(100)%

Drought

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

—%

 

 

 

—%

 

 

 

—%

Drought cost

 

$

3

 

 

$

3

 

 

$

10

 

 

$

7

 

 

 

%

 

 

 

(70)%

 

 

(57)%

Cost per drought

 

$

3

 

 

$

3

 

 

$

10

 

 

$

7

 

 

 

—%

 

 

 

(70)%

 

 

(57)%

Wildfire

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

—%

 

 

 

nm

 

 

 

—%

Wildfire cost

 

$

24

 

 

$

18

 

 

$

 

 

$

1

 

 

33%

 

 

 

nm

 

 

 

2,300%

Cost per wildfire

 

$

24

 

 

$

18

 

 

$

 

 

$

1

 

 

33%

 

 

nm

 

 

2,300%

Other disaster

 

 

2

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100%

 

 

 

nm

 

 

 

nm

Other disaster cost

 

$

3

 

 

$

1

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

 

200%

 

 

 

nm

 

 

 

nm

Cost per other disaster

 

$

2

 

 

$

1

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

 

100%

 

 

 

nm

 

 

 

nm

Wildland fires

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acres burned in wildland fires (thousands)

 

 

8,767

 

 

 

10,026

 

 

 

4,320

 

 

 

5,292

 

 

 

(13)%

 

 

 

103%

 

 

 

66%

Acres burned per wildland fire

 

 

151

 

 

 

140

 

 

 

91

 

 

 

67

 

 

 

8%

 

 

 

66%

 

 

 

125%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

We limited the key metrics data in this table to the years presented to be consistent with the previous sections of this MD&A. The most recent data in those sections is 2018, as that is the latest date for which comprehensive Government-wide financial data is available. Additional years of key metrics data may be found on our website. Click “More detail” to access it.

nm An “nm” reference in the table means the figure is not meaningful.

1 Data is limited to billion-dollar disasters as provided by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, as they account for roughly 80% of the total estimated US losses for all combined severe weather and climate events. These loss estimates reflect direct effects of weather and climate events (not including indirect effects) and constitute total estimated losses (both insured and uninsured). Because most of the data sources provide only insured losses, a “factor approach” (based on approximate average insurance participate rates) is used for conversion into the corresponding total estimated losses. For more detailed information regarding the cost estimates see https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/monitoring-content/billions/docs/smith-and-katz-2013.pdf.

Disaster incidents

The numbers of billion-dollar disaster incidents have fluctuated, with peaks in 2008 and 2011, and a decline thereafter until 2015 when they began increasing again across most disaster types. The number of billion-dollar disaster incidents increased 17% in the past decade. The most frequent type of disaster is severe storm, followed by tropical cyclone and flood.

Disaster costs

Total estimated costs for billion-dollar disasters increased 42% in the past decade, with the most expensive disaster type per disaster being tropical cyclone, followed by wildfire. Per billion-dollar disaster, estimated costs increased 20% over the past decade. The increase in estimated total disaster costs in 2017 reflects $131 billion, $95 billion, and $53 billion related to hurricanes Harvey, Maria, and Irma, respectively.

Disaster deaths

Like billion-dollar disaster incidents, disaster deaths have fluctuated during the past decade, sharply rising in 2017. From 2017 to 2018, there was a decrease in deaths of 3,031 people, or 92%, primarily related to 2,981 deaths attributed to Hurricane Maria in 2017.

Acres burned

Acres burned in wildland fires (in all wildland fires, not just those declared disasters) increased over the past decade but decreased in 2018. Acres burned per wildland fire increased in all periods. Acres burned in wildland fires, categorized as either lightning-caused or human-caused, increased by 3.5 million acres or 66% over the past decade. Human-caused fires increased 2.2 million acres or 64%, and lightning-caused fires increased 1.3 million acres or 68%. The Great Basin region had the largest number and percent increase in total acres burned, at an increase of 1.9 million acres or 1,333%, while the Southern Area region had the largest acre decrease at 613 thousand acres, and the Northern Rockies region had the largest percent decrease at 36%.

Safeguarding consumers and employees

The safeguarding consumers and employees reporting unit seeks to keep people away from harm by regulating, primarily commercial interests.

Safeguarding consumers

Consumer complaints and product safety injuries

Calendar year

(In thousands, except percentages, rates, or otherwise noted)

2018

 

2017

 

2013

 

2008

 

Change

2018 vs.

2017

 

Change

2018 vs.

2013

 

Change

2018 vs.

2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Consumer fraud complaints

 

 

1,504

 

 

 

1,309

 

 

 

1,159

 

 

 

621

 

 

 

15%

 

 

 

30%

 

 

 

142%

Consumer fraud complaints per 100,000 people

 

 

460

 

 

 

403

 

 

 

367

 

 

 

204

 

 

 

14%

 

 

 

25%

 

 

 

125%

Median loss per fraud complaint

 

$

375

 

 

$

429

 

 

$

388

 

 

$

500

 

 

 

(13)%

 

 

 

(3)%

 

 

 

(25)%

Identity theft complaints

 

 

444

 

 

 

371

 

 

 

290

 

 

 

315

 

 

 

20%

 

 

 

53%

 

 

 

41%

Identity theft complaints per 100,000 people

 

 

136

 

 

 

114

 

 

 

92

 

 

 

104

 

 

 

19%

 

 

 

48%

 

 

 

31%

Other consumer complaints 1

 

 

1,177

 

 

 

1,240

 

 

 

685

 

 

 

326

 

 

 

(5)%

 

 

 

72%

 

 

 

261%

Other consumer complaints per 100,000 people

 

 

360

 

 

 

381

 

 

 

217

 

 

 

107

 

 

 

(6)%

 

 

 

66%

 

 

 

236%

Consumer financial protection (CFP) complaints 2

 

 

257

 

 

 

243

 

 

108

 

 

na

 

 

 

6%

 

 

138%

 

 

na

CFP complaints per 100,000 people

 

 

79

 

 

 

75

 

 

34

 

 

na

 

 

 

5%

 

 

132%

 

 

na

Consumer product safety injuries 3

 

 

13,249

 

 

 

13,728

 

 

 

12,759

 

 

 

11,902

 

 

 

(3)%

 

 

 

4%

 

 

 

11%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

We limited the key metrics data in this table to the years presented to be consistent with the previous sections of this MD&A. The most recent data in those sections is 2018, as that is the latest date for which comprehensive Government-wide financial data is available. Additional years of key metrics data may be found on our website. Click “More detail” to access it.

na An “na” reference in the table means the data is not available.

1 Other consumer complaints are complaints made to the FTC that are other than fraud or identity theft complaints, including: auto-related complaints; banks and lenders; computer equipment and software; credit bureaus, information furnishers, and report users; credit cards; debt collection; education; funeral services; home repair, improvement, and products; and television and electronic media.

2 These complaints were reported by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau while all other complaints in this table were reported by the Federal Trade Commission.

3 These are calendar year national estimates of the number of persons treated in US hospital emergency departments with consumer product-related injuries and are derived by summing the statistical weights for the appropriate injury cases. The data system allows for reporting of up to two products for each person's injury, so a person's injury may be counted in two product groups.

Consumer complaints

Consumer complaints have grown throughout the period of this report, driven primarily by increased fraud and other consumer complaints, though all categories of complaints have increased.

  • Fraud complaints are made by adults of all ages with no notable concentrations. Victims who report the method of initial contact primarily report that the fraud was initiated via phone, and those who report transferring funds most often report doing so through wire transfer.
  • Identity theft complaints are also made by adults of all ages, with a plurality (26%) in the 30-39 year old age group, and most often comprise credit card fraud, followed by other identity theft.
  • Other consumer complaints made to the Federal Trade Commission have increased due primarily to third-party debt collection complaints.
  • Consumer financial protection complaints have grown, driven primarily by increases in credit-related complaints, including credit reporting and debt collection. These complaints are made to the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, which originated in 2010 in response to the financial crisis and Great Recession.

Consumer fraud losses

The median loss per fraud complaint has fluctuated over the past decade but decreased in recent years. In 2018, 75% of the reports resulted in no loss, while the group with the largest number of reported losses (22% of the reports) was the group with losses between $1 and $100. Five percent of losses reported were more than $10,000, the top loss group. By type of fraud, the largest median amount paid per fraud in 2018 was for business and job opportunities at $1,304 per fraud.

Consumer product safety injuries

Consumer product safety injuries have fluctuated from year to year, peaking in 2017. The largest numbers of injuries relate to home structures and construction materials, sports and recreational equipment, and home furnishings and fixtures. Injuries related to home structures and construction materials increased 20% when comparing 2018 to 2008, while sports and recreational equipment injuries decreased 9%, and injuries related to home furnishings and fixtures increased 30%, over this same period.

Transportation safety

Calendar year

(In thousands, except percentages, rates, or otherwise noted)

  

2018

 

  

2017

 

  

2013

 

  

2008

Change
2018 vs.
2017

  

Change
2018 vs.
2013

Change
2018 vs.
2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Transportation crashes

 

 

6,760

 

 

 

6,479

 

 

 

5,713

 

 

 

5,839

 

 

 

4%

 

 

 

18%

 

 

 

16%

Highway crashes

 

 

6,735

 

 

 

6,453

 

 

 

5,687

 

 

 

5,811

 

 

 

4%

 

 

 

18%

 

 

 

16%

Highway crashes per 100 million miles driven

 

 

210

 

 

 

204

 

 

 

192

 

 

 

192

 

 

 

3%

 

 

 

9%

 

 

 

9%

Transportation fatalities (actuals)

 

 

38,501

 

 

 

39,368

 

 

 

34,691

 

 

 

39,562

 

 

 

(2)%

 

 

 

11%

 

 

 

(3)%

Highway fatalities

 

 

36,560

 

 

 

37,473

 

 

 

32,893

 

 

 

37,423

 

 

 

(2)%

 

 

 

11%

 

 

 

(2)%

Highway fatalities per 100,000 highway crashes

 

 

543

 

 

 

581

 

 

 

578

 

 

 

644

 

 

 

(7)%

 

 

 

(6)%

 

 

 

(16)%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

We limited the key metrics data in this table to the years presented to be consistent with the previous sections of this MD&A. The most recent data in those sections is 2018, as that is the latest date for which comprehensive Government-wide financial data is available. Additional years of key metrics data may be found on our website. Click “More detail” to access it.

Nearly all transportation crashes (99% in 2018) and transportation fatalities (95% in 2018) are highway crashes and fatalities.

Highway crashes have increased, in absolute terms and per mile driven, over the past decade. Highway fatalities dropped 9% in each calendar year 2008 and 2009 and had remained at roughly 33,000 fatalities per year thereafter until 2015, when they jumped to over 35,000 and then jumped again to over 37,000 in 2016 before decreasing 1% in 2017 and 2% in 2018. Nearly a third of highway fatalities (29% or 10,710 in 2018) involved a driver with a Blood Alcohol Concentration of 0.08 (an illegal level in all 50 States, DC, and Puerto Rico) or higher. Since 2008, distraction-affected fatalities decreased 51%, to 2,841 in 2018.

Safeguarding employees

Calendar year, except as otherwise noted

(In thousands, except percentages, rates, or otherwise noted)

  

2018

 

  

2017

 

  

2013

 

  

2008

Change
2018 vs.
2017

  

Change
2018 vs.
2013

Change
2018 vs.
2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Workplace violations (actual) 1

 

 

49,641

 

 

 

51,307

 

 

 

61,303

 

 

 

67,165

 

 

 

(3)%

 

 

 

(19)%

 

 

 

(26)%

Workplace violations per 100,000 employees

 

 

32

 

 

 

33

 

 

 

43

 

 

 

46

 

 

 

(3)%

 

 

 

(26)%

 

 

 

(30)%

Non-fatal workplace injuries

 

 

3,544

 

 

 

3,476

 

 

 

3,753

 

 

 

4,634

 

 

 

2%

 

 

 

(6)%

 

 

 

(24)%

Non-fatal injuries per 100,000 employees

 

 

2,275

 

 

 

2,267

 

 

 

2,608

 

 

 

3,188

 

 

 

—%

 

 

 

(13)%

 

 

 

(29)%

Fatal workplace injuries (actual)

 

 

5,250

 

 

 

5,147

 

 

 

4,585

 

 

 

5,214

 

 

 

2%

 

 

 

15%

 

 

 

1%

Rate of fatality of workplace injuries

 

 

0.1%

 

 

 

0.1%

 

 

 

0.1%

 

 

 

0.1%

 

 

 

—ppt

 

 

 

—ppt

 

 

 

—ppt

Back wages recovered (fiscal year)

 

$

304,914

 

 

$

270,404

 

 

$

249,954

 

 

$

185,288

 

 

 

13%

 

 

 

22%

 

 

 

65%

Back wages recovered per injury

 

$

86

 

 

$